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 Latter Day Passover and Exodus

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CHAPTER 12 Feb.5 
The Passover Is Commanded
Yahweh spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2This month shall be to you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year to you. 3Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, ‘On the tenth day of this month, they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’ houses, a lamb for a household; 4and if the household is too little for a lamb, then he and his neighbour next to his house shall take one according to the number of the souls; according to what everyone can eat you shall make your count for the lamb. 5Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old. You shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: 6and you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at evening. 7They shall take some of the blood, and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel, on the houses in which they shall eat it. 8They shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire, and unleavened bread. They shall eat it with bitter herbs. 9Don’t eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted with fire; with its head, its legs and its inner parts. 10You shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remains of it until the morning you shall burn with fire. 11This is how you shall eat it: with your belt on your waist, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste: it is Yahweh’s Passover. 12For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and animal. Against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am Yahweh. 13The blood shall be to you for a token on the houses where you are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be on you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt. 14This day shall be to you for a memorial, and you shall keep it a feast to Yahweh: throughout your generations you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever.
Unleavened Bread
15‘Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away yeast out of your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. 16In the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no kind of work shall be done in them, except that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you. 17You shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this same day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance forever. 18In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty first day of the month at evening. 19There shall be no yeast found in your houses for seven days, for whoever eats that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a foreigner, or one who is born in the land. 20You shall eat nothing leavened. In all your habitations you shall eat unleavened bread’.
The Death of the Firstborn
21Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said to them, Draw out, and take lambs according to your families, and kill the Passover. 22You shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning. 23For Yahweh will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel, and on the two doorposts, Yahweh will pass over the door, and will not allow the Destroyer to come in to your houses to strike you. 24You shall observe this thing for an ordinance to you and to your sons forever. 25It shall happen when you have come to the land which Yahweh will give you, according as he has promised, that you shall keep this service. 26It will happen, when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’ 27that you shall say, ‘It is the sacrifice of Yahweh’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He struck the Egyptians, and spared our houses’. The people bowed their heads and worshiped. 28The children of Israel went and did so; as Yahweh had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did. 29It happened at midnight, that Yahweh struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of livestock. 30Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead. 31He called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; and go, serve Yahweh, as you have said! 32Take both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also! 33The Egyptians were urgent with the people, to send them out of the land in haste, for they said, We are all dead men. 34The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders. 35The children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and clothing. 36Yahweh gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. They despoiled the Egyptians. 
The Israelites Leave Egypt
37The children of Israel travelled from Raamses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot who were men, besides children. 38A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock. 39They baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought out of Egypt; for it wasn’t leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and couldn’t wait, neither had they prepared for themselves any food. 40Now the time that the children of Israel lived in Egypt was four hundred thirty years. 41It happened at the end of four hundred thirty years, even the same day it happened, that all the armies of Yahweh went out from the land of Egypt. 42It is a night to be much observed to Yahweh for bringing them out from the land of Egypt. This is that night of Yahweh, to be much observed of all the children of Israel throughout their generations. 43Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner shall eat of it, 44but every man’s servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat of it. 45A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat of it. 46In one house shall it be eaten; you shall not carry out anything of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall you break a bone of it. 47All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48When a stranger shall live as a foreigner with you, and will keep the Passover to Yahweh, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one who is born in the land: but no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. 49One law shall be to him who is born at home, and to the stranger who lives as a foreigner among you. 50All the children of Israel did so. As Yahweh commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did. 51It happened the same day, that Yahweh brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.


12:5 Without blemish- quoted about Christ, whom the Passover lamb represented (1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Pet. 1:19). The animal was to be ‘taken out’ from the flock- it wasn’t specially bred for the occasion. This prefigures how the Lord Jesus was to be of true human nature, one of us, identical to the rest of the flock whom He died to save.
12:11 Belt on your waist- With their robes girded up. In a chapter full of Passover allusions, Peter quotes this phrase as painting a word picture of the intensity in which believers today should be living as they await the call to leave this present society [cp. Egypt] and go to be with the Lord (1 Pet. 1:13).
12:19 Searching their homes for yeast represents our searching of our lives for sin (1 Cor. 5:6-8). Sin is like yeast in that just a little bit of it leads to a huge influence in our lives and those of others- it spreads, unless it is thrown away.
12:22 Hyssop- We think of the use of hyssop in Christ’s crucifixion (Jn. 19:29).
12:23 ‘Pass over’ translates a Hebrew word meaning to hover over. One Angel would hover over the homes of the faithful Israelites to stop the ‘Destroyer’ Angel (1 Cor. 10:10) killing their firstborn.
12:29 Midnight- The second coming of Christ is figuratively said to be with a great cry at “midnight”  (Mt. 25:6). Note how a great cry went up at midnight on Passover night (:30). We who are awaiting the return of Christ are therefore in a similar position to Israel on Passover night, watching and waiting, under persecution of various types.
12:34 The Israelites also took with them the idols of Egypt (Ez. 20:7,8), even though the plagues had demonstrated those idols to be dead and powerless, and God had declared those idols condemned by the plagues (:12). The crossing of the Red Sea represents our baptism (1 Cor. 10:1,2), and we too mustn’t take any of this world’s idols with us when we spiritually leave this world.
12:37 If there were 600,000 men, excluding children, we can guess that there were around three million Israelites who left Egypt, in addition to the mixed multitude of :38. Jacob’s family numbered 70 people when they entered Egypt 430 years previously (12:41; Gen. 46:27). This is a huge growth rate; the promises to Abraham that his descendants would become many clearly received a clear initial fulfilment. Through baptism, those same promises are made to us (Gal. 3:27-29), and in some way we may also experience an initial fulfilment of the promised blessing even in this life.
12:38 Mixed multitude- Egyptians who had come to side with Yahweh? Or does this refer to the offspring of relations between the Israelites and Egyptians (e.g. Lev. 24:10)?
12:42 The Passover was a memorial feast, to commemorate how God had saved His people. The equivalent for believers today is the breaking of bread meeting, rightly called by some ‘the memorial meeting’. It’s a celebration of what has been done for us through the slain lamb, the Lord Jesus.