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CHAPTER 18 Feb.9 
Jethro Visits Moses
Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, how that Yahweh had brought Israel out of Egypt. 2Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, received Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her away, 3and her two sons. The name of one son was Gershom, for Moses said, I have lived as a foreigner in a foreign land. 4The name of the other was Eliezer, for he said, My father’s God was my help and delivered me from Pharaoh’s sword. 5Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife to Moses into the wilderness where he was encamped, at the Mountain of God. 6He said to Moses, I, your father-in-law Jethro, have come to you with your wife, and her two sons with her. 7Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed and kissed him. They asked each other of their welfare, and they came into the tent. 8Moses told his father-in-law all that Yahweh had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardships that had come on them on the way, and how Yahweh delivered them. 9Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which Yahweh had done to Israel, in that He had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians. 10Jethro said, Blessed be Yahweh, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who has delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. 11Now I know that Yahweh is greater than all gods because of the thing in which they dealt arrogantly against them. 12Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God. Aaron came with all of the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.
An Administrative System Put in Place
13It happened on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from the morning to the evening. 14When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, he said, What is this thing that you do for the people? Why do you sit alone, and all the people stand around you from morning to evening? 15Moses said to his father-in-law, Because the people come to me to inquire of God. 16When they have a matter, they come to me, and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and I make them know the statutes of God, and His laws. 17Moses’ father-in-law said to him, The thing that you do is not good. 18You will surely wear away, both you, and this people that is with you; for the thing is too heavy for you. You are not able to perform it yourself alone. 19Listen now to my voice. I will give you counsel, and God be with you. You represent the people before God, and bring the causes to God. 20You shall teach them the statutes and the laws, and shall show them the way in which they must walk, and the work that they must do. 21Moreover you shall provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God: men of truth, hating unjust gain; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 22Let them judge the people at all times. It shall be that every great matter they shall bring to you, but every small matter they shall judge themselves. So shall it be easier for you, and they shall share the load with you. 23If you will do this thing, and God commands you so, then you will be able to endure, and all of these people also will go to their place in peace. 24So Moses listened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said. 25Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 26They judged the people at all times. They brought the hard causes to Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves. 27Moses let his father-in-law depart, and he went his way into his own land.


18:2 Moses "sent away" this woman- the Septuagint uses the same Greek word translated to “divorce” in 1 Cor. 7:11-13. Moses allowed divorce for the hardness of Israel's hearts (Mt. 19:8) and yet he himself appears to have divorced her- for the hardness of his heart?
18:3 Moses' children had names which showed his recognition he was a stranger in the land where he was living; he lived as a foreigner in Midian. Few people live in a country for 40 years without feeling they belong to it. We who are the Israel of God are to live as foreigners and pilgrims in this land which in fact is our eternal inheritance (Heb. 11:13; 1 Pet. 2:11).
18:15 Again we see the degree to which Moses was functionally God to the people, although he wasn’t God Himself in person. The same can be said of Jesus.
18:18 Moses accepts Jethro's advice on the basis that he would otherwise “wear away”; even though his natural strength never abated (Dt. 34:7). Was that because he followed Jethro’s advice- or because God blessed him anyway, making Jethro’s advice irrelevant?
18:21 As with the New Testament qualifications for leadership amongst God’s people, birth,  education, charisma and social standing were irrelevant. Spiritual qualifications were to decide who was chosen for leadership- a concept unheard of in any other religion.