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CHAPTER 10 May 20 
Woe to those who decree unrighteous decrees, and to the writers who write oppressive decrees; 2to deprive the needy from justice, and to rob the poor among My people of their rights, that widows may be their spoil, and that they may make the fatherless their prey! 3What will you do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which will come from afar? To whom will you flee for help? Where will you leave your wealth? 4They will only bow down under the prisoners, and will fall under the slain. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still.

How God Used Assyria
5Alas Assyrian, the rod of My anger, the staff in whose hand is My indignation! 6I will send him against a profane nation, and against the people who anger Me will I give him a command to take the spoil and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7However he doesn’t mean so, neither does his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy, and to cut off not a few nations. 8For he says, Aren’t all of my princes kings? 9Isn’t Calno like Carchemish? Isn’t Hamath like Arpad? Isn’t Samaria like Damascus? 10As my hand has found the kingdoms of the idols, whose engraved images exceeded those of Jerusalem and of Samaria; 11shall I not, as I have done to Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? 12Therefore it will happen, that when the Lord has performed His whole work on Mount  Zion and on Jerusalem, He will punish the fruit of the wilful proud heart of the king of Assyria, and the insolence of his arrogant looks. 13For he has said, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom; for I have understanding: and I have removed the boundaries of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures. Like a valiant man I have brought down their rulers. 14My hand has found the riches of the peoples like a nest, and like one gathers eggs that are abandoned, have I gathered all the earth. There was no one who moved their wing, or that opened their mouth, or chirped. 15Should an axe brag against him who chops with it? Should a saw exalt itself above him who saws with it? As if a rod should lift those who lift it up, or as if a staff should lift up someone who is not wood. 16Therefore the Lord Yahweh of Armies will send among his fat ones leanness; and under his glory a burning will be kindled like the burning of fire. 17The light of Israel will be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame; and it will burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day. 18He will consume the glory of his forest and of his fruitful field, both soul and body. It will be as when a standard bearer faints. 19The remnant of the trees of his forest shall be few, so that a child could write their number.

A Remnant
20It will come to pass in that day that the remnant of Israel and those who have escaped from the house of Jacob will no more again lean on him who struck them, but shall lean on Yahweh, the Holy One of Israel, in truth. 21A remnant will return, even the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God. 22For though your people, Israel, are like the sand of the sea, a remnant of them shall return. A destruction is determined, overflowing with righteousness. 23For the Lord Yahweh of Armies, will make a full end as already determined, in the midst of all the earth.

The Lord Will Punish Assyria
24Therefore the Lord Yahweh of Armies, says My people who dwell in Zion, don’t be afraid of the Assyrian, though he strike you with the rod, and lift up his staff against you, as Egypt did. 25For yet a very little while, and the indignation against you will be accomplished, and My anger will be directed to his destruction. 26Yahweh of Armies will stir up a scourge against him, as in the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb. His rod will be over the sea, and He will lift it up like He did against Egypt. 27It will happen in that day, that his burden will depart from off your shoulder, and his yoke from off your neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing oil. 28He has come to Aiath, he has passed through Migron; at Michmash he stores his baggage; 29they have gone over the pass; they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah trembles; Gibeah of Saul has fled. 30Cry aloud with your voice, daughter of Gallim! Listen, Laishah! You poor Anathoth! 31Madmenah is a fugitive, the inhabitants of Gebim flee for safety, 32this very day he will halt at Nob. He shakes his hand at the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem. 33Behold, the Lord Yahweh of Armies will lop the boughs with terror. The tall will be cut down, and the lofty will be brought low. 34He will cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon will fall by the Mighty One.


10:7 He doesn’t mean so- Unbelieving people and entire nations can be controlled by God to do His purpose, but their hearts are far from consciously realizing the role they are playing. Assyria was used by God to punish various Gentile nations and also Judah to some extent, but when he went too far and thought he would destroy the Jerusalem temple because Yahweh was merely another idol who couldn’t withstand his strength (:11-13)- then God punished him. Truly all things are for our sakes as God’s people (2 Cor. 4:15), and God even watches and disciplines those unbelievers who play a role in our lives if they intend to go further than what God has intended. His level of involvement in human life is awesome. We need to remember that in those times when we may feel God to be distant and uninvolved.
10:20 Will no more again lean on him who struck them- God’s people had a bizarre habit of worshipping the very idols which their enemies worshipped. Any worship of this world’s idols is just as bizarre, but in the heat of our human situation, we don’t see the absurdity of it as we should.
10:22 This is quoted in Rom. 9:27 and the remnant is interpreted as the minority of Israel who would believe in Christ. Always God works with relatively small numbers. Israel were one of the smallest of the nations in their world, and yet God chose them; and yet out of them, He finally worked only with a remnant. In the context of Romans 9, Paul also appears to understand God’s definition of a remnant here as meaning that they were a remnant only by grace; as if even our correct belief and living before God is to some degree a result of His gracious calling.  
10:25 My anger will be directed to his destruction- God’s anger isn’t emotion out of control. His anger was against Judah, and He was using Assyria to punish them; but He can assure His people that soon that anger will be redirected against the Assyrian, and He will save Jerusalem itself, although the rest of the land of Judah would be conquered- :28-30 describe the Assyrian advance through the other cities of Judah. Even whilst angry with Judah, God felt sorry for them- hence “You poor Anathoth!” (:30). In wrath He remembers mercy (Hab. 3:2).